Peer-reviewed publications + -

D’Ambrosio, U. and Teixidor-Toneu, I. 2021. Els amazics i les plantes. Paisatges culturals a l’Alt Atles marroquí. Milfulles, 6: 35-39. Available at:


Teixidor-Toneu, I., Elgadi, S., Zine, H., Manzanilla, V., Ouhammou, A., and D’Ambrosio, U. 2021. Medicines in the Kitchen: Gender Roles Shape Ethnobotanical Knowledge in Marrakshi Households. Foods 10, no. 10: 2332.


Teixidor-Toneu, I., M’Sou, S., Salamat, H., Ait Baskad, H., Ait Illigh, F., Atyah, T., Mouhdach, H., Rankou, H., Ait Babahmad, R., Caruso, E., Martin, G.J., D’Ambrosio U. 2021. Which plants matter? A comparison of academic and community assessments of plant value and conservation status in the Moroccan High Atlas. Ambio-A Journal of Environment and Society Link to read-only version:


Ait Babahmad, R., Msou, S., McCandless, S., Caruso, E., D’Ambrosio, U., Martin, G.J. Ouhammou, A.. Rankou, H. 2020. Floristic richness, composition, medicinal diversity and flora checklist of a key biodiversity area in the High Atlas (Imegdal). Manuscript submitted for publication.


Bendella, A., Caruso, E., D’Ambrosio, U., Dominguez, P., Martin, G.J., M’sou, S., Romera, M.C. 2020. Rights over land among High Atlas communities in Morocco: The case of agdals. Manuscript in preparation.


Da Silva, P. 2020. Preserving local cultural heritage through capacity building for girls in the Moroccan High Atlas. In: Hunter, D., Monville-Oro, E., Burgos, B., Roel, C.N., Calub B.M., Gonsalves, J., Lauridsen, N. (eds.). Agrobiodiversity, School Gardens and Healthy Diets: Promoting Biodiversity, Food and Sustainable Nutrition. Routledge. 302 pp.


Rankou, R., Ait Babahmad, R., M’sou, S., Skipper, J., McCandless, S., Caruso, E., Martin, G.J. and Ouhammou, A. 2020.  IUCN Red List assessment uncovers the high-level of extinction risk to the High Atlas biodiversity hotspots. Manuscript submitted for publication.


Rankou, R., M’sou, S., Ait Babahmad, R., S., Caruso, E., D’Ambrosio, U., Martin, G.J. and Ouhammou, A. 2020. Moroccan High Atlas Agdals – Floristic richness, composition, medicinal diversity and flora checklist (Case study: Agdal-Igourdane). Manuscript submitted for publication.


Teixidor-Toneu, I., Elhajjam, A &, D’Ambrosio, U. 2020. Ethnoveterinary Practices in the Maghreb. In: McGaw L., Abdalla M. (eds) Ethnoveterinary Medicine. Springer, Cham. pp. 285-310.


Teixidor-Toneu, I., Martin, G.J., M’sou, S. & D’Ambrosio, U. 2020. Integrating Amazigh cultural practices in Moroccan High Atlas biodiversity conservation. In: Thornton, F. & Bhagwat, S.A. (eds.). Handbook of Indigenous Environmental Knowledge: Global Themes and Practice. The Routledge Handbook of Indigenous Environmental Knowledge (pp. 201-213). London, UK.


Rankou, H., D’Ambrosio, U., Caruso, E. and Martin, G.J. 2018. “KBAs for plants by country – Morocco” in Valderrábano, M., Gil, T., Heywood, V., Montmollin, B.d. (eds) Conserving wild plants in the South and East Mediterranean region, pp. 45-52 Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.


Roma, Ardón R., Manuel Felipe F., Manuel Perfecto, E., Eduardo González, F. 2018. Estrategias de manejo adaptadas al territorio en la Chinantla. De la recolección a los agroecosistemas: soberanía alimentaria y conservación de la biodiversidad. ED: Silv E, Martínez V, Lascurain M, Rodríguez E. Primera Edición. Unviersidad Veracruzana. Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. 65-80 p.


Ouarghidi, A., Powell, B., Martin, G.J. and Abbad, A. 2017. Traditional Sustainable Harvesting Knowledge and Distribution of a Vulnerable Wild Medicinal Root (A. pyrethrum var. pyrethrum) in Ait M’hamed Valley, Morocco. Economic Botany 71: 83-96. https://doi:10.1007/s12231-017-9374-2.


Teixidor-Toneu, I., Martin, G.J., Puri, R.K., Ouhammou, A., Hawkins, J.A. 2017. Treating infants with frigg: Linking disease aetiologies, medicinal plant use and care-seeking behaviour in southern Morocco. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 13:4.


Bacchetta, L., Visioli, F., Cappelli, G., Caruso, E., et al. 2016. ‘A manifesto for the valorization of wild edible plants’ Journal of Ethnopharmacology 191:180-187. DOI:


Caruso, E. et al. 2016. ‘Lessons for Research Policy and Practice: The Case of Co-enquiry Research With Rural Communities’. Journal of Research Practice 12(1), Article M1. Open Access:


Teixidor-Toneu, I., Martin G.J., Ouhammou A., Puri, R.K., Hawkins, J.A. 2016. An ethnomedicinal survey of a Tashelhit-speaking community in the High Atlas, Morocco. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 188:96–110.


Teixidor-Toneu, I., Martin, G.J., Ouhammou, A., Puri, R.K., Hawkins, J.A. 2016. Comprehensive dataset of the medicinal plants used by a Tashelhit-speaking community in the High Atlas, Morocco. Data in Brief, 8, 516-519.


Caruso, E. (ed.) 2015. Conducting and Communicating Ethnobotanical Research: a methods manual. MedPlant/Global Diversity Foundation. Available for download at:


Caruso, E., Camacho Benavides, C., del Campo García, C., Roma, R, Medinaceli, A., 2015. Co-enquiry and Participatory Research for Community Conservation: a methods manual. COMBIOSERVE/Global Diversity Foundation. Available for download at:


Rankou, H., A. Culham, M.S. Taleb, A. Ouhammou, G.J. Martin, S.L. Jury. 2015. Conservation assessments and Red Listing of the endemic Moroccan flora (monocotyledons). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 177:504-575.


de Boer, H.J., Ouarghidi, A., Martin, G.J., Abbad, A., Kool, A. 2014. DNA Barcoding Reveals Limited Accuracy of Identifications Based on Folk Taxonomy. PLoS ONE 9(1): e84291. https://doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084291.


Ibarra, J.T., Barreau, A., Del Campo, C., Camacho, C. I., McCandless, S. R. and Martin, G.J. 2011. When formal and market based conservation mechanisms disrupt food sovereignty: impacts of community conservation and payments for environment services on an indigenous community in Oaxaca, Mexico. Special Issue on Forests, Biodiversity and Food Security: International Review of Forestry 13(3):318-337.


Martin, G.J., C.I. Camacho, C. del Campo, S. Anta, F. Chapela and M.A. González. 2011. Indigenous and Community Conserved Areas in Oaxaca, Mexico. Management of Environmental Quality 22(2):250-226. Special Issue on Traditional Agricultural landscapes and Community Conserved Areas.


Martin, G.J., C. del Campo, C.I. Camacho, G. Espinoza and X. Zolueta. 2010. Negotiating the web of law and policy: community designation of Indigenous and Community Conserved Areas in Mexico, Policy Matters 17:195-204 – Special Issue on Conservation Pluralism: Towards Diversity in Law Policy and Practice

Conference papers + -

D’Ambrosio, U. 2019. Ethnobiology as a tool to analyze change dynamics, minimize conflict over land use and support ecosystem services in the Moroccan High Atlas. 4th Open Science Meeting of the Global Land Programme. 24-27 April 2019, Bern, Switzerland. Sessions list:


D’Ambrosio, U, Teixidor-Toneu, I, Salamat, H , M’Sou, S., Ait Baskad, H,, Ait Illigh F, Atyah, T., Bellia, G., El Hajjam, A., Mouhdach, H., Rankou, H., Caruso, E. & Martin, G.J. 2018. Ethnobotanical knowledge in the High Atlas: potential for plant biodiversity conservation. 2nd Mediterranean Plant Conservation Week, 12-16 November 2018. La Valetta, Malta.


Rankou, H., Ait Babahmad, R., M’sou, S., D’Ambrosio, U., Caruso, E. and Martin, G.J. 2018. Integrated Conservation Approach in the Moroccan High Atlas. 2nd Mediterranean Plant Conservation Week, 12-16 November 2018. La Valetta, Malta.


COMBIOSERVE Consortium. Conference proceedings. Community Conservation in Latin America: Innovations in Research and Practice, 6-9 November 2014. Veracruz, Mexico.


BEDE, ICCA Consortium and Global Diversity Foundation. Pre-congress workshop and congress report. Conservation by Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities: Advances in Participatory Action Research, Dissemination and Advocacy. 13th Congress of the International Society for Ethnobiology. May 2012. Montpellier, France. Also available in French and Spanish.


Global Diversity Foundation, IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) and the IUCN Commission on Environmental, Economic and Social Policy (CEESP). Community Conservation in Practice. 12th International Society of Ethnobiology Congress. May 2010. Tofino, British Columbia.

IUCN Conservation Assessments + -

Rankou, H., M’Sou, S., Diarra, A. & Ait Babahmad, R.A. 2020. Capparis spinosaThe IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T137745831A139593491.


Rankou, H., M’Sou, S., Diarra, A. & Ait Babahmad, R.A. 2020. Mentha gattefosseiThe IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T164184A72262769.


Rankou, H., M’Sou, S., Ait Babahmad, R.A. & Diarra, A. 2020. Thymus saturejoidesThe IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T139600868A139601223


Rankou, H., M’Sou, S., Diarra, A. & Ait Babahmad, R.A. 2020. Lavandula maroccanaThe IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T139600541A139600544.


Rankou, H., M’Sou, S., Ait Babahmad, R.A. & Diarra, A. 2020. Cistus monspeliensisThe IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T73094084A139593829.


Rankou, H., M’Sou, S., Ait Babahmad, R.A. & Diarra, A. 2020. Salvia taraxacifoliaThe IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T139603526A139603531.


Rankou, H., M’SOU, S., Ait Babahmad, R.A., Ouhammou, A., Alifriqui , M. & Martin, G. 2018. Pistacia atlanticaThe IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T19365844A117264678.

Briefs, reports and case studies + -


7 February 2023. Bidding bye to '22, with a warm welcome to '23

3 September 2022. Reflecting, redesigning and reporting- a new GDF identity

22 April 2022. Upcoming events at GEN, team additions and more

24 December 2021. Looking back & thinking ahead (GDF Year End Newsletter 2021)

14 December 2021. Rites of Passage in the 21st Century: Maintaining, restoring & reviving initiation practices to address our planetary crisis

19 November 2021. Join us in the GEN Grove: a space for our collective ecological grief

15 November 2021. Happening tomorrow! Creative Strategies for Change with Suzanne Dhaliwal

10 November 2021. Creative Strategies for Change with Suzanne Dhaliwal - Join us!

13 August 2021. Colonial Conservation, Health Sovereignty, grief + weaving resilience: GEN Community NL - Aug 2021

28 May 2021. Eight new GEN projects, join the GEN Grove on parenting whilst working, crowdfunding for the toolkit retreat, and more!

6 April 2021. Agroecological vineyards, hiring a GEN Programme Coordinator, reviving land-honoring ceremonies

22 December 2020. Adapting to COVID-19 with community capacity building, new documentary on transhumance in the High Atlas, lineup of events for 2021, and more! (GDF Newsletter, December 2020)

9 July 2020. The High Atlas Biocultural Database is now online!

5 June 2020. Our 2019 Annual Report, an online programme, a photo competition and more! [GDF Newsletter 2020-1, June]

27 December 2019. Thank you! Your support changes lives.

3 September 2019. Meet Touda, our community researcher from Aït M’hamed

13 June 2019. Feeling inspired to write about Mediterranean nature and culture?

8 March 2019. Join us in celebrating girls in Morocco!

8 February 2019. GDF Newsletter February, Issue 2019-1: We are Rooted Everyday. You can be, too!

21 December 2018. Have you met Jamila? A true environmental role model for the girls at Dar Taliba

12 December 2018. GDF Newsletter December, Issue 2018-2

24 May 2018. GDF Newsletter May, Issue 2018-1: Protecting environment and people

11 May 2018. Still searching for that perfect gift for Mother’s Day?

21 December 2017. GDF Newsletter December, Issue 2017-2: Meet Zahra, Aguojil and Nejma: Strengthening local practices in Morocco

25 April 2017. GDF Newsletter April, Issue 2017-1

Articles + -

Global Diversity Foundation and Moroccan Biodiversity and Livelihoods Association (2022). Placing the High Atlas on the global map: experiences and insights from a cultural landscapes approach to conservation and human wellbeing. GDF: Canterbury, England (UK). xviii + 170pp.


The Darwin Initiative. Supporting Amazigh farmers for the conservation of local agrobiodiversity in the Moroccan High Atlas. Darwin Initiative Newsletter, December 2020, p.7-8


SAVOIRS ANCESTRAUX: Le Maroc tire parti des connaissances traditionnelles pour préserver l’environnement et les modes de vie


The Darwin Initiative. Co-creating an ethnobotanical school garden for Amazigh girls in the High Atlas, Morocco. Darwin Initiative Newsletter, February 2019, p.5-6


Aman Sham, M. There is so much more to a story than meets the eye: Tales from the Dusun of Ulu Papar. Langscape Magazine Volume 7, Issue 1, Summer 2018, p.58-61.


Teixidor-Toneu, I., Caruso, E., Rankou, H., D’Ambrosio, U., Martin, G. Global Diversity Foundation – Conducting ethical conservation research. Botanic Gardens Conservation International ABS Implementation examples.


The Darwin Initiative. Achieving the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation in the Moroccan High Atlas. Darwin Initiative Newsletter, May 2018, p.5-6.


The Darwin Initiative. Conserving threatened plant species to support community adaptation and resilience to climate change in the High Atlas, Morocco. Darwin Initiative Newsletter, November 2017, p. 13.


Vogl, C.R., Martin, G.J. and Schunko, C. Protecting biocultural diversity. International Innovation Magazine (Research Media), Issue 151: Firm Foundations


Nelson, M. In Morocco’s High Atlas Mountains, Seeds of Progress. Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund website, 15 November 2016.


The Darwin Initiative. Traditional knowledge of medicinal root harvesting and plant conservation in Southern Morocco. Darwin Initiative Newsletter, November 2015, p.10.


Aman Sham, M., Dolan, J., McCandless, S., and Nelson, M. Building Cross-continental Connections among North American Indigenous Nations; The Sharing Circle 2015, International Funders for Indigenous Peoples


The ICCA Consortium. Community Action for Conservation: Mexican Experiences. The ICCA Consortium Newsletter, Issue#7, June 2014, p.34.


Martin, G. Multiscale action for medicinal plants: implementing the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation on a human dimension. Samara, Issue 26, Jan-June 2014, p.1-2.


Tekguc, I., Yoshida, Y., McCandless, S., Otieno, N., Heubach, K., Kamelamela, K., Bray, K. Perspectives from the Global Environments Summer Academy Alumni. Langscape Volume 2, Issue 13, Winter 2013, p.28-41.


Caruso, E. Reflections from a participant in the Symposium “Protected Areas: are they safeguarding biodiversity?” – Zoological Society of London, 8-9 November 2012. The ICCA Consortium Newsletter, Issue#3, January 2013.


Tekguc, I. Kakakapan id Gayo Ngaran (Return to the Big Name). Langscape, Volume 2, Issue 2, Summer 2012.


The Darwin Initiative. A Community Protocol for Ulu Papar. Darwin Initiative Newsletter, July 2012, p. 7-8.

Annual Reports + -

Online databases + -

Image credits + -

Images featured throughout this website are attributed to the Global Diversity Foundation, unless indicated otherwise. GDF photo contributors:  Inanc Tekguc and Pommelien da Silva Cosme.